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Parmotrema arnoldii (Du Rietz) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Imbricaria nilgherrensis Arnold,  more]
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 3-20 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-20 mm wide; apices: rotund, often ascending and wavy, ciliate; cilia: up to 5 mm long upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth, dull to shiny, faintly white maculate soredia: granular, common, in linear, marginal to submarginal soralia; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown to mottled white naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: scattered, simple Apothecia: rare, substipitate, up to 10 mm in diam.; margin: crenulate; disc: brown, often perforate ascospores: ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 15-22 x 9.5-12 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: 10.5-11.5 µm long Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ red or orange, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with alectoronic acid (major) and α-collatolic acid (minor). Substrate and ecology: on hardwood trees (often among mosses) in relatively exposed positions World distribution: neotropics and extending well into temperate regions to the north and south, Macaronesia, throughout Europe and New Zealand Sonoran distribution: common on live oaks in woodlands of southern California, especially the Channel Islands.
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image
Parmotrema arnoldii image