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Parmelia squarrosa Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
Parmelia squarrosa image
Stephen Sharnoff  

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Arctic.  Substrate: wood – dead, living | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: blue(ish) grey | green(ish) grey | white(ish) grey; [th upper surface]: epruinose | pruinose; [th upper surface] pruina: scarce, sparse, fine; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: present; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 1.0 (high) 3.0 (max) 5.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): distantly discontiguous; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | rugose, plicate, folded, pustulate, faveolate, wrinkled | maculate | cracked, fissured, fractured, rimulose, subrimose | pseudocyphellate, with pseudocyphellae; [th] morphol substructures (eg lobes, branches): subdichotomous | irregular; [th] lower surface: black(ish); [th lower surface] specific structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizinoid structures: squarrosely branched, squarrose.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (low) 1.0 (high) 3.0; ascoma: sessile, superficial | subpedicellate, substipitate, subpedunculate, substalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: concave | plane, flat, flattened, expanded; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose; [ascm, if apoth] margin surface; [if perith] periostiolar area, ostiole, involucrellum: blue(ish) grey | green(ish) grey | white(ish) grey; [ascm, if apoth] margin excipular photobionts: present | abundant; [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present; [ascm] epihymenium, epithecium: yellow(ish) brown | red(dish) brown (pale: orange brown).  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with widening axial body towards the apex (= Lecanora-, Parmelia-, Rinodina-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: broadly ellipsoidal | ellipsoidal; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 13.0 (high) 15.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 8.0 (high) 9.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Secondary metabolites: present, atranorin | chloroatranorin | consalazinic acid | salazinic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.

Parmelia squarrosa image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmelia squarrosa image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmelia squarrosa image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmelia squarrosa image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
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Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image
Parmelia squarrosa image