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Melanelia stygia (L.) Essl.
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Cetraria stygia (L.) Schaer.,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like thallus: continuous, diffuse, effuse [th] upper surface: black(ish) | black(ish) brown | grey(ish) brown | green(ish) brown (olive brown) [th upper surface]: epruinose | pruinose [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: present [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (min) 0.2 (low) 0.5 (high) 1.5 (max) 3.0 [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): distantly discontiguous [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | rugose, plicate, folded, pustulate, faveolate, wrinkled [th] morphol substructures (eg lobes, branches): subdichotomous | irregular [th] lower surface: black(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) [th lower surface] specific structures: present [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: present [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizinoid structures: unbranched, simple ascomata: absent | present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 1.0 (high) 2.5 ascoma: sessile, superficial | subpedicellate, substipitate, subpedunculate, substalked [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: concave | plane, flat, flattened, expanded [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose [ascm, if apoth] margin surface; [if perith] periostiolar area, ostiole, involucrellum: black(ish) | black(ish) brown | grey(ish) brown | green(ish) brown (olive brown) [ascm, if apoth] margin excipular photobionts: present | abundant [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present [ascm] epihymenium, epithecium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with widening axial body towards the apex (= Lecanora-, Parmelia-, Rinodina-types etc) ascospores: (median) 8.0 [asp] shape: ellipsoidal | ovoid, ovate [asp] length [µm]: (low) 9.0 (high) 11.0 [asp] width [µm]: (low) 4.5 (high) 6.0 [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: perlatolic acid | stenosporic acid primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.
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Lucy Taylor  
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Lucy Taylor  
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Lucy Taylor  
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Jason Hollinger  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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