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Hypotrachyna livida (Taylor) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia livida Taylor]
Hypotrachyna livida image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, 2-9 cm in diam., somewhat fragile, tightly adnate, subdichotomously lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane to rugulose, 1-2 mm wide, initially separate, becoming contiguous to partly imbricate; margin: entire; apices: subtruncate upper surface: whitish gray, smooth, shiny, emaculate, isidia, soralia, pustulae and dactyls all absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, tips brownish black; rhizines: frequent, black, sparsely dichotomous Apothecia: usually present, laminal, sessile, 1-5 mm in diam.; disc: brown, margin crenulate, lacking pruina, soredia or isidia asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 10-12 x 5-6 ┬Ám Pycnidia: peripheral on thallus, semi-immersed conidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with 4-O-methylphysodic and colensoic acids (major), hydroxycolensoic acid, lividic and methoxycolensoic acids (minor), oxyphysodic and physodic acids (trace). Substrate and ecology: on hardwood bark and rarely acidic rocks in lower montane to montane forests World distribution: neotropics and SE USA Sonoran distribution: Chihuahua in the Sierra Madre Occidental.
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Troy McMullin  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Gary Perlmutter  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Gary Perlmutter  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Gary Perlmutter  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Gary Perlmutter  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
charles gardner  
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image
Hypotrachyna livida image