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Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirton) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia andreana Müll. Arg.,  more]
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, weakly appressed to tightly adnate, 4-10(-13) cm in diam., lobate lobes: sublinear to sub-irregular, 2-6 (-9) mm wide, plane, contiguous upper surface: greenish yellow to yellow-green, turning a dark buff with age in the herbarium, smooth to weakly wrinkled and rugose, rarely weakly ridged-reticulate, sometimes with white maculae; rare specimens with a few marginal laciniae pseudocyphellae: white, large (up to 1 mm), round to elongated and branched, generally common and abundant soredia: white, farinose to granular, in round, laminal soralia arising from pseudocyphellae and sometimes coalescing; lobe margins may also support soralia, only occasionally forming reflexed, "crescent-shaped" soralia medulla: white with a continuous algal layer lower surface: black to dark chestnut brown, sometimes paler toward the margin, smooth to finely wrinkled; rhizines: simple, rarely branching, short, concolorous with the lower surface, usually absent in a zone along the margins Apothecia: rare, laminal, sessile to substipitate, 2-6 mm in diam., pseudocyphellate and becoming sorediate; disc: deeply concave, dark rusty-brown; margin: concolorous with the thallus asci: Lecanora-type, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ovoid to ellipsoid, 8-13 x 5-7 µm Pycnidia: black, rare or absent conidia: bifusiform or appearing filiform, 6-10 µm long Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellowish, KC-, C-, P-; medulla C+ red, KC+ red, K-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (minor) and rarely atranorin (trace); medulla with lecanoric acid (major), + 5-chlorolecanoric acid (minor or trace). Substrate and ecology: on rocks (basalt, gneiss, granite, rhyolite, sandstone and rarely limestone), bark of hardwoods (Fouquieria, Prunus, Quercus, Robinia), bark and wood of conifers (Juniperus, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga) from 120-850 m in southern California or 1250-3140 m in other Sonoran areas World distribution: widespread in temperate and boreal areas as well as higher elevations in the tropics in North and South America, Africa, Europe and India Sonoran distribution: mountains of Arizona, southern California, including the Channel Islands, Baja California and Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Sonora. Notes: As pointed out by Hale (1980), some specimens of F. flaventior intergrade with F. soredica. However, the combination of abundant large pseudocyphellae, laminal soralia, and the infrequent formation of marginal "crescent-shaped" soralia is usually diagnostic. Specimens collected from bark are more likely to appear "intermediate" than those occurring on rocks.
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Jason Hollinger  
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Flavopunctelia flaventior image
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