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Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.
Family: Parmeliaceae
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like | fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like [th] upper surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: pseudocyphellate, with pseudocyphellae ascomata: absent secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: fumarprotocetraric acid | protocetraric acid | protolichesterinic acid primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves.
Cetraria islandica image
Lucy Taylor  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Cetraria islandica image
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