Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: adnate, foliose, 3-6 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, moderately imbricate, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 0.5-2 mm wide; apices: subrotund with prominent inflated, with bulbate cilia upper surface: pale gray, smooth to rugose, shiny, faintly white maculate; soredia, isidia and pustulae absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, rhizinate, the rhizines moderately dense, black, simple to branched Apothecia: common, laminal, 1-3 mm wide; disc: red-brown to dark brown; margin: outer rim smooth, inner rim coronate ascospores: ellipsoid, 6-10 x 5-6 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with gyrophoric acid (major). Substrate and ecology: on small trees in open habitats World distribution: neotropics and East and South Africa Sonoran distribution: oak forests at intermediate elevations in Sonora.