Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, pendulous (appearing superficially fruitcose due to strongly upturned lobe tips), circular in outline or irregularly spreading, up to 5 cm wide, loosely adnate, lobate lobes: flat to convex, discrete, loosely imbricate, dichotomously branched, short linear, 2.5 mm long, mostly 0.5-2 mm wide, tips strongly ascending, eciliate upper surface: pale gray to greenish gray, dull or somewhat shiny; without soredia or isidia upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous, 40-60 µm thick, hyaline to brownish medulla: white, with a chondroid strand lower surface: dark brown, with a continuous, dense spongiostratum 1 mm thick, erhizinate; upturned tips erupting into soredia Apothecia: not seen Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with divaricatic acid. Habitat and ecology: on bark or rock in very humid microclimates World distribution: SE USA (Smoky Mountains) and Mexico south to Venezuela; New Guinea, the Philippines Sonoran distribution: c. 2000 m in the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua