Thompson, J., 1997. American Arctic Lichens: The Microlichens.
Thallus varying from thin to quite thick, of verrucules grouping to form an areolated crust, ashy, white, or ashy-brownish, dull, lacking soredia; hypothallus lacking. Apothecia more or less confluent, ad-nate; base broad; exciple radiate, blue, K—; disk to 2.5 mm, convex, becoming immarginate, black, bare, dull; hypothecium partly reddish brown, partly pale, the upper part of more or less vertical hyphae, the hyphae swelling in KOH; epihymenium blue to brown-blue; hymenium 70-100 μm, either with the upper part or with all bluish, 1+ blue turning red; paraphyses not thickened at tips; asci clavate; spores ovoid-oblong to fusiform-oblong, 13-24 x 3-3.5 μm.
Reactions: K—, C—, KC —, P+ orange, T-.
This species grows on mosses and sandy soils. It is a rare circumpolar arctic-alpine species. In North America it ranges south to Colorado.