Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, rimose to areolate, 0.1-0.3 mm thick; prothallus: gray or blackish gray to black, c. 0.1 mm wide, rarely more distinct surface: yellowish white with a slightly greenish touch, older specimens sometimes pale gray, smooth, dull to somewhat glossy, without soredia or isidia Apothecia: sessile, sometimes semi-immersed when young, not or only slightly constricted at base, 0.2-0.8 mm in diam. disc: black, greenish to reddish brown to olive when wet, plane to weakly convex, epruinose margin: indistinct, very thin, often soon becoming excluded exciple: brown, blackish green to rarely grayish green, without algal cells parathecium: hyaline, without crystals epihymenium: brown, olive to rarely greenish black hymenium: hyaline, 45-60 µm tall, not inspersed; paraphyses: simple, rarely anastomosing or branched, slightly thickened apically hypothecium: hyaline or rarely weakly yellowish brown asci: clavate, lecanoral, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 8-13 x 4.5-6.5 µm; wall: thick and smooth, not halonate Pycnidia: globular, immersed, with Vobis-type III conidiophores conidia: filiform, curved, 18-25 µm long Spot tests: thallus surface K+ yellow, C+ yellowish red, KC+ yellowish red, P+ yellow Secondary metabolites: 3-O-methylthiophanic acid (=2,4,5,7-tetrachloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone), 4,5-dichloro-3-Omethylnorlichexanthone, 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone, arthothelin (2,4,5-trichloronorlichexanthone), atranorin, chloroatranorin, hopane-6a,22-diol, and thuringione (= 2,4,5-trichloro-3-Omethylnorlichexanthone), rarely trichlorolichexanthone. Substrate and ecology: on non-calciferous rocks World distribution: tem perate parts of Africa, Asia, Australasia, North and South America Sonoran distribution: Baja California Sur and Sonora.