Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, indistinct, endolithic to rimose or areolate, thin (up to 0.4 mm thick); prothallus: present but not obvious surface: gray, rusty red, or white, rough Apothecia: sessile, 0.5-1.2 mm in diam. disc: black, plane to subconvex, epruinose margin: biatorine, prominent, persistent, not to occasionally umbonate amphithecium: 3550 µm wide parathecium: blackish brown exciple: black to green to brown hypothecium: black to brown hymenium: hyaline, rarely greenish to turquoise above, 40-55 µm tall asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple to occasionally 1-septate, ellipsoid to oblong-obtuse to ellipsoid-cylindrical, 6.5-16 x 3-5.5 µm Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC- and P+ orange Secondary metabolites: pannarin or none detected. Substrate and ecology: on non-calciferous rock at 2200 m in a pine forest World distribution: Antarctica, temperate Asia, Australasia, Europe, North and South America Sonoran distribution: central Arizona and California.