Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, sometimes indistinct, granulose, rimose or areolate thin (0.1-1 mm thick); prothallus: present areoles: 0.2-0.6(-2.4) mm wide surface: white, rough, without asexual propagules Apothecia: sessile, 0.5-0.8 mm wide disc: black, plane to convex, epruinose margin: prominent, usually persistent, strongly flexuous, not umbonate exciple: gray, green, brown, or orange hymenium: hyaline or rarely bluish green to green above, 50-70 µm tall; paraphyses: distinctly thickened hypothecium: brownish yellow, orange or yellowish brown or rarely hyaline asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, (8-)9.5-14(-15) x (4-)4.5-7.5(-8) Pycnidia: globular, immersed conidia: filiform, 10-20 µm long Secondary metabolites: atranorin and 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid. Substrate and ecology: on non-calciferous rocks at low to intermediate elevations in oak-pine forests World distribution: Africa, Australasia, Europe, and North and South America Sonoran distribution: southeastern Arizona, and along the Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua and Sonora.