Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, not lichenicolous Thallus: rimose to granular or areolate areoles: up to 0.8 (-1.2) mm diam., adjacent, angular, plane to moderately convex upper surface: yellowish to reddish brown, epruinose, dull, smooth, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 40 µm high, lacking calcium oxalate margin: concolorous with upper surface Apothecia: up to 0.7 mm diam., remaining ± plane and marginate or plane and marginate when young, later convex and immarginate, epruinose or faintly pruinose; exciple: greenish brown to dark green in the rim, pale brown to reddish brown in inner part; hypothecium: dark reddish brown; epithecium: bright to dark green (K-, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 1-septate, 10-15.5 x 4.5-6 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed or partly protruding conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: none Substrate and ecology: on sandstone in pinyon-juniper woodland at 1890 m World distribution: widely distributed, but scattered, in the Northern Hemisphere Sonoran distribution: northern Arizona (single locality).
Thompson, J., 1997. American Arctic Lichens: The Microlichens.
Thallus crustose, fairly thick, chinky-areolate, areolae angular, 0.5-1 mm broad, dirty yellow to rust-brown, shining, lacking soredia or isidia. Apothecia dispersed, adnate, 0.5-1.0mm broad, flat and persistently so; margin raised but disappearing; disk black, epruinose, dull; exciple dark, brownish with the interior violet-brown, continuing into hypothecium, which is brown to reddish brown; epihymenium greenish to olive-black; hymenium 45-70 μm, hyaline; paraphyses easily separated in water, 1.5-2.5 μm, tips 3.5-6.5 μm; asci subcylindrical; spores hyaline, oblong to broadly ellipsoid, narrowed at the septum. 11-16 x 4-6.5 μm.
Reactions: K-, C-, P-; exciple K+ violet, the dark part HNO3, red-violet; hymenium 1+ blue turning wine-red.
This species grows on calcareous rocks. It is known from Europe as an arctic-alpine species and is found in Greenland and the Northwest Territories, albeit rarely.