Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized, lichenicolous or not Thallus: squamulose squamules: up to 3 mm diam., scattered to adjacent or weakly proliferating, rounded to elongated, often lobed, weakly concave to weakly convex upper surface: olivaceous brown to grayish brown or dark brown, epruinose, dull or slightly shiny, smooth or with shallow fissures, lacking pores and pseudocyphellae upper cortex: up to 100 µm high, lacking calcium oxalate margin: usually somewhat darker than the upper surface Apothecia: up to 1 mm diam., plane and marginate or sometimes becoming convex and immarginate, epruinose or faintly pruinose; exciple: dark brown in the rim, pale brown to colorless in inner part; hypothecium: pale brown to colorless; epithecium: bright to dark green (K-, N+ violet) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid to bacilliform, 1-3 septate, 13.5-30.5 x 3-4.5 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed or partly protruding conidia: filiform Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on acidic rock in open habitats or in Madrean oak and pine forests, at 1600-1830 m World distribution: widely distributed in the temperate region of the Northern Hemisphere, Kenya, Peru Sonoran distribution: rare in southeastern Arizona and Chihuahua.