Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: squamulose, heteromerous, irregular, consisting of small thalli (up to 0.5 mm wide) joining to form larger patches within which at least some convex squamules are raised on one edge upper surface: olive-green to brown-green, ± glossy, paler spots develop into globular knob-like outgrowths that later form soredia in cup-like soralia upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous, 20-30 µm thick, with thick-walled cells c. 5 µm diam. medulla: white, composed of loosely interwoven hyphae particularly in lower part, hyphae with crenulate wall, I- photobiont: a green alga, Myrmecia-type; cells: globose, 5-10 µm diam. lower surface: black centrally and paler towards the margin; erhizinate or with sparsely developed, simple rhizines Apothecia: up to 0.5 mm diam., short stalked, bluish gray, biatorine, margin slightly paler; exciple: distinct, cells anticlinal and elongated, 3-4 µm wide and thick walled (lumina 1-2 µm in water); epihymenium: colorless, K- or faintly K+ violet, N-; hymenium: hyaline, up to 80 µm tall, more or less conglutinated; paraphyses: simple or rarely branched, colorless, 1.5-3 µm thick, with slightly swollen apices; hypothecium: colorless, indistinctly delimited asci: cylindrical-clavate, with an amyloid fuzzy coat and a thick I+ blue apical dome in young apothecia, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, fusiform or slightly thicker on one side, 3-septate, thick walled Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC- and P- Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on bark of oaks, especially Quercus agrifolia in maritime habitats World and Sonoran distribution: coastal California from Monterey County to the Channel Islands.