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Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr.
Family: Ramalinaceae
[Biatora helvola subsp. minor (Nyl.) Räsänen,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified thallus: granular, granulose, granulate [th] upper surface: grey(ish) | green(ish) | brown(ish) grey | grey(ish) green [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 0.1 (high) 0.25 [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: granulose, granular | verrucose, warted ascomata: absent | present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.35 (high) 0.6 (max) 1.45 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded | subconvex, slightly convex | convex | distinctly convex | strongly convex, hemispherical, (sub-)globose [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) yellow (ochraceous, ochre) | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with acuate axial body towards the apex (= Bacidia-, Buellia-, Ramalina-types etc) ascospores: (median) 8.0 [asp] shape: narrowly ellipsoidal [asp] length [µm]: (min) 10.0 (low) 12.6 (high) 19.4 (max) 25.5 [asp] width [µm]: (min) 4.0 (low) 4.3 (high) 5.8 (max) 7.0 [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular | present [asp] septa: transversely septate [asp] transversal septa: (low) 0.0 (high) 1.0 (max) 3.0 [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent secondary metabolites: absent primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | wood – dead, living | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs.
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Troy McMullin  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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