Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Thallus: endolithic or reduced beneath the apothecium to a stipe 0.2-0.6 mm tall and up to 0.5 mm wide containing scattered algae and usually encased partially in an extension of the parathecium's outer layer disc: dull reddish brown (orange when wet), rough, sometimes flexuous margin: black, narrow, prominent, often in-rolled over disc, sometimes splitting, becoming brown when wet true exciple: 40-50 µm thick around disc but beneath disc up to 150 µm thick, composed of radiating hyphae, externally dark yellowish or reddish brown, internally brown to pale yellow epihymenium: pale to blackish orange Apothecia: 15-20 µm thick; in lines and clusters, 0.7-1.4 mm in diam., sometimes folding up when dry hymenium: hyaline, 50-110 µm tall; paraphyses: septated and constricted, basally 1.9-2.5(-3) µm wide, apically expanded up to ±4 µm wide subhymenium: hyaline, 20-40 µm thick pothecium: grading from yellow to a brown as it forms an extension of the outer layer of parathecium beneath the apothecium, prosoplectenchymatous, over 50 µm thick asci: clavate, 50-80 x 15-23 µm, 100+-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 4-6 x 1.8-2.1, often quite variable in size Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: exciple and part of hymenium K+ yellow; P+ yellow-orange, diffusing, with red crystals often forming Secondary metabolites: norstictic acid (major), neotricone (minor), hyposalazinic acid (trace) and connorstictic acid (trace) (HPLC, J.A. Elix, per com.) Substrate and ecology: on granite World distribution: western North America (Arizona, North Dakota) Sonoran distribution: Arizona. Note: Sarcogyne dakotensis can be confused with S. novomexicana, but that species lacks norstictic acid and has a brown margin with broader spores.