Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Mycelium: immersed, spreading through the upper part of the algal layer and the lower part of the cortex hyphae: brown, flexuous, frequently branching, thin-walled, mainly 2-3.5 µm wide, regularly encapsulating algal cells Pseudothecia: immersed, globose, ostiolate, 50-100 µm in diam., arising singly but soon becoming aggregated by a common clypeus that remains largely immersed, the clypeus comprising hyphae of the host and invading fungus, finally dark brown to black, mainly 20-30 µm thick pseudothecial wall: 8-15 µm thick, thickest near the ostiole where it is scarcely delimited from the tissues of the clypeus, formed of intertwined thick-walled; dark brown hyphae mainly 2-3.5 µm thick, K+ olivaceous hymenium: hyaline, 50-60 µm tall, I-, K/I-; subhymenium: hyaline, 4-6 µm thick pseudoparaphyses: distinct, persistent, filiform, branched and anastomosing, septate, 1-2 µm thick periphyses: not clearly differentiated asci: elongate-clavate, with a distinct internal apical beak when young, 45-55 x 12-15 µm, 8-spored ascospores: olivaceous brown, irregularly distichous, 1-septate, ellipsoid to soleiform, rounded at the apices, slightly constricted at the septum, the lower cell often somewhat narrower, often guttulate, weakly verruculose, (9-)10-13.5 x (4-)5-6.5 µm Pycnidia: black, immersed, 45-60 µm in diam.; wall: dark brown, K+ olivaceous conidia: hyaline, simple, bacilliform, 5.5-6 x 1 µm. Hosts: thalli of Hypocenomyce scalaris, more rarely H. anthracophila World distribution: Europe and North America Sonoran distribution: eastern Arizona in a mixed conifer forest.