Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: very variable, totally leprose throughout as a loose mass of irregular lumps of soredia, or stratified and at first usually forming rosettes, but later irregularly spreading, indeterminate and with or without obscure lobes, sometimes determinate and with well-developed lobes up to 0.9 mm wide with a raised margin, sometimes wrinkled and partly free from the substrate, up to 0.6 mm thick, up to several cm in diam. upper surface: shades of grayish yellow to greenish yellow, very rough soredia: coarse, usually ±globose and up to 0.3 mm in diam., sometimes forming irregular, flattened to elongate-terete lumps up to 0.7 mm in diam., without projecting hyphae except for marginal ones medulla: not evident to distinct and white lower surface: often pale brown (partly due to adhering particles), with scarse to abundant tomentum of colorless to brownish hyphae not visible from above Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange or P- Secondary metabolites: atranorin (trace; an uncommon accessory), pannaric acid 6-methyl ester (major), ±4-oxypannaric acid 6-methyl ester (in trace to moderate amounts; rarely absent), roccellic acid (a common accessory in trace amounts), 4-oxypannaric acid 2-methyl ester (tr.), pannaric acid (tr.), pannaric acid 2-methyl ester (tr. to minor), methyl prophyrilate (tr. to minor), porphorilic acid (tr.), lecanoric acid (trace; found in a few specimens due to a contaminant?). Substrate and ecology: on rocks, soil, mosses, detritus, bark (Quercus gambelii), and Selaginella on cliff-faces, in sheltered crevices, under overhangs, in boulder cracks World distribution: Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North and South America Sonoran distribution: Arizona, Sonora, and Baja California at 670-3000 m.