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Protopannaria pezizoides (Weber) P. M Joerg. & S. Ekman
Family: Pannariaceae
[Collema brunneum (Sw.) Mérat,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: small-squamulose, forming compact mats over the substrate; hypothallus: poorly developed and inconspicuous squamules: small, up to 1 mm wide and up to 200 µm thick, often imbricate upper surface: gray, bluish gray to dark brown (when wet), sometimes with a reddish tinge upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous, 40-50 µm thick medulla: composed of intricately interwoven, lax plectenchyma, 20-40 µm thick and merging into the hypothallus below photobiont: a cyanobacterium (Nostoc, forming clumps) Apothecia: common, often aggregated, up to 2 mm in diam., flat to convex, with a strong crenulate thalline margin; disc: bright orange-brown to dark brown; exciple: subparaplectenchymatous, up to 40 µm thick; hymenium: I+ dark blue, up to 150 µm high; paraphyses: simple, septate, slightly clavate at apices asci: clavate to subcylindrical, 8-spored. ascospores: simple, colorless, ellipsoid, 25-30 x 9-12 µm (including the distinct, warted epispore; otherwise 19-25 x 8-10 µm) Conidiomata: pycnidial Spot tests: all reactions negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on damp mosses or soil, mainly in montane regions World distribution: widespread in the cool, temperate regions of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, mountains of East Africa Sonoran distribution: high elevations in Douglas fir and spruce-fir zones above 2500 m in the mountains of central and eastern Arizona. Notes: It is characterized by the numerous, conspicuous brightly colored apothecia with a pertsistant granular thalline margin, and the often brownish, nearly crustose thallus, though often confused with Psoroma hypnorum, a species found in similar habitats, which is easily distinguish on its greenish squamulose thallus and large, convex apothecia with squamulose thalline margin. Protopannaria pezizoides contains a cyanobacterium and hence is very dark bluish brown when wet; whereas P. hypnorum is bright green when wet due to its chlorococcoid alga.
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Troy McMullin  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Troy McMullin  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Jason Hollinger  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Jason Hollinger  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Samuel Brinker  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Protopannaria pezizoides image
Stephen Sharnoff  
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