Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life Habit: lichenized Thallus: smooth or granular to finely digitate or minutely squamulose upper surface: green, grayish green, olivaceous or brownish anatomy: paraplectenchymatous throughout, composed of ± papillate cells photobiont: primary one a chlorococcoid alga, secondary photobiont absent; algal cells: 5-11 micro meters in diam., distributed over most of thallus Ascomata: perithecial, subglobose or pyriform to barrel-shaped, often between squamules or granules, superficial to half-immersed, without an involucrellum; exciple: thick, paraplectenchymatous, ± distinctly 3-layered, black externally, paler or colorless internally, outer surface matt or subnitid, plicate-rugose or smooth; periphyses: present, simple or sparingly branched; interascal filaments absent; hymenial gel I+ blue or orange-red asci: clavate, thin-walled (I-), with slightly thickened apex that lacks an ocular chamber, (1-) 2- or (4-) 8-spored ascospores: strongly muriform, hyaline to pale brownish, ellipsoid to elongate-ellipsoid Conidiomata: pycnidial (known only in one species) small, black conidia: bacilliform Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: temperate regions of the world Substrate: soil, detritus, mosses, bark of old trees. Notes: The genus is closely related to Polyblastia, from which it is separated by ± papillate cortical cells and multi-layered perithecial walls.