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Opegrapha anguinella (Nyl.) Ertz & Diederich
Family: Opegraphaceae
[Chiodecton anguinellum (Nyl.) Vain.,  more]
Opegrapha anguinella image
Laurens Sparrius  
Thallus: crustose, up to 5 cm in diam., continuous to rimose to areolate, 100-200 µm thick; prothallus: thin, gray surface: white to dull gray-green, smooth, water repellent cortex: absent medulla: cream-colored, with abundant crystals 15-25 µm in diam., upper part without algae, 1015 µm thick, composed of densely interwoven hyphae Ascomata: always present, often crowded, apothecioid in section, rounded to short lirelliform, rarely branched 0.2 x 0.2-0.5 mm disc: pink to red-brown, epruinose margin: thalline, 0.1-0.4 mm wide, prominent to disappearing in specimens with thin thalli exciple: pale orange in section, 15-25 µm wide epihymenium: brown-orange, c. 20 µm thick, with crystals of c. 0.8 µm in diam., K- hymenium: hyaline, 60-100 µm tall, without crystals and oil drops; paraphysoids: c. 1 µm wide, apices 1-1.5 µm wide, irregularly branched and anastomosed hypothecium: hyaline, 25-50 µm thick, K- asci: cylindrical, 60-75 x 15-17 µm, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 6-11 septate, ellipsoid-fusiform to acicular-fusiform, (25-)30-40(-52) x 2.3-3 µm, with a gelatinous sheath up to 2.5 µm thick Pycnidia: often present, randomly dispersed over the thallus, dark brown-black, immersed, punctiform, 100 µm in diam. at ostiole, up to 150 µm in section, wall with orange crystals 5-7 µm in diam. conidia: filiform, curved or sigmoid, 1523 x 0.8 µm Spot tests: K+ pale yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow Secondary metabolites: psoromic acid (sometimes in trace amounts but always with clear P+ yellow spot test reaction of the thallus surrounding the apothecia). Substrate and ecology: on bark of trees and shrubs or on damp igneous rock in lowland areas World distribution: pantropical, from Florida (U.S.A.) to Uruguay in North and South America Sonoran distribution: known from one locality in Baja California Sur on Rhizophora (mangrove) near Cuidad Insurgentes growing with species of Dendrographa, Lecanactis, Opegrapha, Roccella and Schismatomma. Notes: Enterographa anguinella is characterized by its short, lirelliform ascomata in pseudostromata which are slightly raised above the thallus, its pink to pale brown discs, and its acicular, hyaline, 7-11 septate ascospores.