Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, continuous, varnish-like to coarsely warted, or ±granular surface: pale gray, green-gray, or gray-green Apothecia: at first almost flat but soon becoming convex and ±globose, 0.3-0.9 mm in diam. disc: pale pink or ±brown to black, often piebald and dull, epruinose margin: concolorous with or paler than disc, at first distinct, level with disc, soon excluded and reflexed exciple: almost colorless, pale yellow, or orange-brown, uppermost part sometimes darker orange-brown to red-brown (K+ purplish, N+ orange; paler pigment K+ intensifying, N+ intensifying), diffusely pigmented, without crystals, laterally up to 90 µm wide hymenium: colorless below except for vertical streaks of pigment, dirty green above (K-, N+ purple), ±brown (K+ purplish, N+ orange), or a mixture of both, without crystals, 85-130 µm tall paraphyses: 2-3(4) µm wide in mid-hymenium; apices: ±clavate or not at all thickened, 3-6.5 µm wide, without internal pigment hypothecium: very pale brown to orange-brown to red-brown (K+ purplish, N+ orange) in a zone in upper part, otherwise paler, strongly developed asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 3-5(-7) septate, fusiform, straight, 17-33 x 4.5-8.5 µm (perispore excluded), with finely warted perispore Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Habitat and ecology: on bryophytes and detritus covering rock in mixed conifer forests at 1900-2000 m World distribution: North America and Europe, particularly in boreal zones Sonoran distribution: known from a few localities in north-central and northern Arizona.