Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Thallus: fruticose, small, forming cushions 2-6 mm wide, rarely forming flat rosettes branches: cylindrical, diversely branched, 1.5-1.7 mm long, 0.065-0.15 mm thick, rarely with deflexed tips, centrally with a loose, fountain-like hyphal arrangement incorporating photobiont cells upper surface: black, without isidia but short side branches may appear isidioid lower surface: concolorous with the upper surface, attached by tufts of rhizohyphae Apothecia: thallinocarpous, very rarely observed, lateral or subterminal swellings ascospores: not observed Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: all negative Secondary products: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on siliceous rocks World distribution: North America Sonoran distribution: southern California and Sonora. Notes: The species resembles Lichinella stipatula but has more robust, larger branches and forms discrete cushions. Lichinella americana differs in the sometimes slightly flattened branchings and the presence of numerous globose isidia. Lichinella flexa differs in the presence of compact central hyphal strand. Lichinella robustoides and L. flexa are often infected by pyrenocarpous ascomycetes causing gall-like swellings on the lobes or at the lobe tips.