Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Substrate and ecology: on volcanic rock or rhyolite, Sonoran Desert with cholla and prickly pear, 730-1000 m, but also shaded cliffs under pines at 2133 m Sonoran distribution: Arizona (Coconino, Graham and Maricopa Cos.). Notes: Lecanora muralis var. brunneola is similar to adjacent thalli of the typical variety, but differs in containing isousnic acid (+usnic acid), which gives the upper surface a brownish color. Although this chemistry and color also occur in various other collection of L. muralis s. ampl., those collections are closer in morphology to subsp. dubyi or show additional distinctive chemical or morphological features. North American material of var. brunneola contains leucotylin, which is absent from Ukrainian material.